Writing Simple Software Serial Function in Arduino

Introduction: Hardware Serial Vs Software Serial Arduino hardware and software development platform provides both hardware serial and software serial communication libraries. Hardware serial communication uses the microcontroller’s internal serial interface hardware that manage the digital signaling on its pin, even computing the parity bit for data transmission or for checking the received data if required (configured),  so the CPU can […]

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Arduino HM-936D Soldering Station Controller Development

A. Introduction: The 936 Soldering Station Series in The Market With the popularity of specific brand’s soldering station labeled with 936-series, many manufacturers (mostly Chinese companies) make benefits by producing the counterfeit products with the generic names “936 series” soldering station. It is a good things that their parts are widely available on the online marketplace, as shown in the […]

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State Machine and Cooperative Multitasking Model: Simplify Complex Processes Programming for Microcontroller

Introduction: Microcontroller Software Design for Complex Processes Designing a software for complex tasks or processes will be easier if we organize the whole tasks into smaller functional tasks, where the tasks communicate each-other through common variables. For a functional task, a concept of state machine has been established for defining and describing the process details, which could ease the implementation […]

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Adjustable Frequency Flip-Flop Circuit Using Inverter Gate

This flip-flop circuit uses one potentiometer and one capacitor as the frequency determining components. The assembled circuit is shown in the Figure 1, and the schematic diagram of the circuit is shown in the Figure 2. The circuit consists of one integrated circuit of inverter gates (4069 CMOS or  74C04), one electrolytic capacitor, two resistors, two LEDs, and one potentiometer. […]

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Converting 5V 7805 Linear Voltage Regulator to Produce 6.4V Output

Making a linear voltage regulator using 78XX integrated circuit series is very easy, it needs only one or two additional components to make the integrated circuit chip works. The problem arises when we need a custom voltage specs for the output, since they come in discrete fixed voltage variation (specified by XX parameter printed in the body of the IC […]

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High Voltage (220VAC) Bass-Treble Automatic Disco Light Controller

The previous music-controlled disco light controllers, the audio-controlled disco light controller circuit and hi-lo (treble-bass) disco light controller have some features and drawbacks. The first one features high voltage drive, enable the circuit to drive 220VAC lamps, and the drawback is that it has only one way (single channel control). In the other side, the second version has two-way (bass […]

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Low Power Consumption Indicator with Blinking LED

Low Power Requirement of Indication and The Solution Visual indication using light emitting diode becomes very common, because LED technology offer many benefits: low power consumption, durable, and cheap. Some indication must be able to draw strong attention, or at least it must be very clear to read whether its state is on of off. In some application, the requirement […]

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Automatic Wah/Quack Effect Circuit with Attack and Decay Control

To get various characteristic of an auto wah/quack effect, we need a flexible control of  the envelope detection characteristic. Some playing styles need slow attack but fast decay,  but some others don’t. Employing the envelope detector circuit presented in our previous article [Ref 1], but with some modification to make it single supply operation. Here we present the improvement of […]

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Envelope Detector Circuit with Separate Attack/Rise and Decay/Release Time Settings

Introduction to Envelope Detector Circuit Envelope detector circuit is used to get the amplitude profile of a signal. Some important properties of an envelope detector are attack or rise time and decay or release time. In the Figure 1, a signal is plotted in blue, and the detected envelope is plotted in black. Since it employs capacitor for filtering inside […]

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Automatic Wah/Quack Effect Using LED+LDR Controlled Band-Pass Filter

Introduction to Automatic Wah/Quack Effect Automatic wah/quack effect gives a similar effect with the manual version (reference [1]), but without the need of any pedal to manually control the frequency/tonal sweep. This automation is made possible by detecting the envelope signal of the instruments audio signal, and use it to control the filter to produce center frequency  sweep, producing audio […]

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Inductor-less Wah/Crying Baby/Quack Effect Using Operational Amplifier

A type of guitar effect pedal that produce “wah”- or “quack”-like sound, which is similar to the crying sound of  a baby is called  wah-wah pedal, or just  wah pedal. The effect is produced by filtering the musical instrument through a band-pass filter, which the center of its peak frequency is swept from low to high, mimicking  audio tonal transition […]

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Fold-Back Distortion: Producing “Phew” Effect Using Software and Hardware (Analog Electronic Circuit)

Introduction: What is Fold-Back Distortion? I was introduced to a term of  “fold-back distortion” in the past by an article from an old book which I forget what the title is, but the book contains schematic diagrams of many circuits collected from old publication of Elektor magazine (www.elektor.com). The article presents the circuit’s schematic diagram and how it works. I […]

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